Immune Monitoring

Immune Monitoring enables the fingerprint analysis of antibody responses upon immunization, vaccination or administration of a biopharmaceutical drug. In contrast to an ELISA, which only states whether antibodies against the antigen are present or not, PEPperMAP® Immune Monitoring breaks down the humoral immune response into high and low immunogenic epitopes.

A peptide microarray covering one or more proteins translated into overlapping peptides is first assayed with the pre-immunization sample followed by data read-out. Subsequently, the same array is assayed with the post-immunization sample. Immune Monitoring, hence, allows the clear differentiation of a raised antibody response of an individual from a given antibody status.

Moreover, serum samples taken at different time points enable monitoring the time-resolved development of humoral immune responses after immunization, vaccination or drug administration in a uniquely high resolution manner.

Immune Monitoring with a single antigen translated into 13 aa peptides with 12 aa peptide-peptide overlap printed in duplicate: The microarray scans after incubation with the pre-immunization serum (top left) and subsequent testing of two post-immunization sera (top middle and top right) clearly highlight the humoral immune response after immunization; the intensity plot (bottom right) shows the increase in antibody binding over time. The signal intensities of the post-immunization samples were leveled to provide a better overview. Stained HA (red) and Flag (green) control peptides frame the antigen-derived peptides.




  • Vaccine and adjuvant development
  • Fingerprint analysis of immunization effects
  • Time-resolved investigation of vaccination strategies
  • High resolution monitoring of anti-drug antibodies
  • Monitoring of B-cell responses upon infection





 Download the Immune  
Monitoring Summary   

Input Data & Sample Material

  • Protein sequence(s) in the FASTA format or corresponding UniProt IDs
  • 20 µl serum or 20 µg purified antibody




PEPperCHIP® Peptide Microarray analysis is straightforward and can be performed in your own lab or covered by a PEPperMAP® Service. Information about lab requirements for PEPperCHIP® Peptide Microarray analysis can be found here.



Further Information










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